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Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation 2010;10(3):77-84.
Published online June 30, 2010.
바닥내장재의 연소특성 분석에 관한 연구
박영주, 이해평, 김현주
A Study on Analysis of Characteristics Combustion of Floor Covering Materials
Young-Ju Park, Hae-Pyeong Lee, Hyun-Ju Kim
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed the combustion characteristics of four different floor covering materials(wood, monorium, laminatedpaper, and varnish-laminated paper) with regard to their ignitibility, thermal characteristics and flame retardancy by using an ignition temperature tester, a dual cone calorimeter, a thermogravimetric analyzer and limited oxygen index, for their fire risk assessment. According to the result, monorium had the lowest ignition temperature of $325^{circ}C$ and the laminated paper and the varnish-laminated paper promptly ignited before 7s. Further, the wood showed the largest total heat release of $100MJ/m^2$, and the varnish-laminated paper showed the highest peak heat release rate. From the thermogravimetric analysis, it was shown that all specimens underwent rapid weight loss at $300{sim}400^{circ}C$. The limit oxygen indices of the laminated paper and the varnish-laminated paper were in the range of 20~21%, while it was 34% for wood. This study enabled us to confirm that wood, laminated paper and varnish-laminated paper have a relatively short ignition time and are easy to burn but they all have low heat release. In contrast, wood showed the lowest fire risk among them and had excellent flame retardancy but with high heat release.
Key Words: Floor covering materials; Heat release rate; Limit oxygen index; Flame retardancy; Ignition temperature
요지
본 연구에서는 건축물 내장재 가운데 바닥재의 화재특성을 평가하기 위하여 목재, 모노륨, 장판지, 니스코팅 된 장판지 등 4종의 바닥재를 대상으로 콘칼로리미터, 발화온도시험기, 열중량분석기, 한계산소지수시험기 등을 이용하여 착화성, 발열특성, 난연성과 같은 연소특성을 분석하였다. 모노륨은 발화온도가 $325^{circ}C$로 가장 낮았으며, 장판지와 니스코팅 된 장판지는 비교적 빠른 시간인 7초 이전에 착화가 시작되었다. 총열방출량은 목재가 $100MJ/m^2$로 가장 높게 나타났지만 최대열방출율은 니스코팅된 장판지가 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다. 열중량분석 결과, 모든 바닥재들이 $300{sim}400^{circ}C$ 온도구간에서 급격한 중량감소를 보였으며, 한계산소지수는 장판지와 니스코팅 된 장판지가 20~21% 정도이고 목재는 34%로 나타났다. 본 연구결과를 살펴보면, 모노륨, 장판지, 니스코팅 된 장판지는 착화가 빠르고 연소가 용이한 반면, 발열량은 낮은 것을 알 수 있었으며, 목재는 비교적 착화위험성이 낮고 난연성은 좋지만 발열량이 높은 것으로 나타났다.
핵심용어: 바닥재; 열방출율; 한계산소지수; 난연성; 발화온도


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